CIC Inspection & Consulting Ltd's team of non-destructive testing technicians, certified through the Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB), are here to meet your non-destructive testing and inspection needs and give you peace of mind on your project. We maintain a knowledgeable staff of CGSB certified Level II Magnetic Particle (MT/MPI) Technicians, Level II Liquid Penetrant (PT) Technicians & Levels I & II Ultrasonic (UT) Technicians.
Contact us to discuss your current project. CIC Inspection & Consulting Ltd. will make recommendations to meet your NDE/NDT needs in a cost effective and efficient manner while maintaining conformance with your project requirements.
Magnetic Particle Inspection Dry Method (inspection of Ferro Magnetic Materials)
In this magnetic particle testing technique, dry particles are dusted onto the surface of the test object as the item is magnetized. Dry particle inspection is well suited for the inspections conducted on rough surfaces. When an electromagnetic yoke is used, the AC or half wave DC current creates a pulsating magnetic field that provides mobility to the powder. The primary applications for dry powders are unground welds and rough as-cast surfaces. Dry particle inspection is also used to detect shallow subsurface cracks.
Visible Liquid Penetrant Method
LPI can be used to inspect almost any material provided that its surface is not extremely rough or porous. Materials that are commonly inspected using LPI include the following:
- Metals (aluminum, copper, steel, titanium, etc.)
- Many ceramic materials
Liquid penetrant inspection can only be used to inspect for flaws that break the surface of the sample. Some of these flaws are listed below:
- Fatigue cracks
- Quench cracks
- Grinding cracks
- Overload and impact fractures
- Pin holes in welds
- Lack of fusion or braising along the edge of the bond line
Magnetic Particle Inspection Wet Method (inspection of Ferro Magnetic Materials)
Wet suspension magnetic particle inspection, more commonly known as wet magnetic particle inspection, involves applying the particles while they are suspended in a liquid carrier. Wet magnetic particle inspection is most commonly used in suspensions available in spray cans for use with an electromagnetic yoke. A wet inspection has several advantages over a dry inspection. Wet inspection is considered best for detecting very small discontinuities on smooth surfaces. On rough surfaces, however, the particles can settle in the surface valleys and lose mobility, rendering them less effective than dry powders under these conditions.
Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more.
In longitudinal waves, the oscillations occur in the longitudinal direction or the direction of wave propagation. Since compressional and dilational forces are active in these waves, they are also called pressure or compressional waves. They are also sometimes called density waves because their particle density fluctuates as they move. Compression waves can be generated in liquids, as well as solids because the energy travels through the atomic structure by a series of compressions and expansion (rarefaction) movements.
Magnetic Particle Inspection Wet Bench Fluorescent Method (inspection of Ferro Magnetic Materials)
Stationary magnetic particle inspection equipment is designed for use in laboratory or production environment. The most common stationary system is the wet horizontal (bench) unit. Wet horizontal units are designed to allow for batch inspections of a variety of components.
The coil is used to establish a longitudinal magnetic field within the part. Leakage fields from defects attract the particles to form visible indications.
Circular magnetic field is established using a central conductor. This type of a setup is used to inspect parts that have an open center, such as gears, tubes, and other ring-shaped objects. When current is passed through the central conductor, a circular magnetic field flows around the bar and enters into the part or parts being inspected.
In the transverse or shear wave, the particles oscillate at a right angle or transverse to the direction of propagation. Shear waves require an acoustically solid material for effective propagation, and therefore, are not effectively propagated in materials such as liquids or gasses. Shear waves are relatively weak when compared to longitudinal waves. In fact, shear waves are usually generated in materials using some of the energy from longitudinal waves.